Chemical engineers are increasingly applying their fundamental knowledge of chemistry, physics, and math to “scale-down” processes, thereby allowing for a reduction in material and spatial requirements while providing for more controlled operating conditions. This scale-down gives rise to the need to fabricate systems that span length scales that can be on the order of microns to nanometers. Today’s fabrication techniques create devices with electronic, optoelectronic, mechanical, and/or fluidic functionality. Device examples include applications that traverse multiple engineering and scientific disciplines—e.g., computer chips, communications components, sensors, accelerometers, diagnostic “lab-on-chip” systems, chemical screening systems, and small-scale manufacturing platforms. Devices are typically made via the selective deposition and removal of thin film materials in conjunction with photolithography, which is a technique that allows the transfer of a desired two-dimensional pattern to the substrate of interest. Ultimately, fabrication at these scales provides a powerful resource for many areas of research and is a driver for future technological advancement.